Brick and tile, structural clay products, manufactured as standard units, used in building construction.
The brick, first produced in a sun-dried form at least 6,000 years ago and the forerunner of a wide range of structural clay products used today, is a small building unit in the form of a rectangular block, formed from clay or shale or mixtures and burned (fired) in a kiln, or oven, to produce strength, hardness, and heat resistance. The original concept of ancient brickmakers was that the unit should not be larger than what one man could easily handle; today, brick size varies from country to country, and every nation’s brickmaking industry produces a range of sizes that may run into the hundreds. The majority of bricks for most construction purposes have dimensions of approximately 5.5 × 9.5 × 20 centimetres (21/4 × 33/4 × 8 inches).
Structural clay tile, also called terra-cotta, is a larger building unit, containing many hollow spaces (cells), and is used mainly as backup for brick facing or for plastered partitions.
Structural clay-facing tile is often glazed for use as an exposed finish. Wall and floor tile is a thin material of fireclay with a natural or glazed finish. Quarry tile is a dense pressed fireclay product for floors, patios, and industrial installations in which great resistance to abrasion or acids is required.
Fireclay brick is used in incinerators, boilers, industrial and home furnaces, and fireplaces. Sewer pipe is fired and glazed for use in sewage-disposal systems, industrial waste systems, and general drainage. Drain tile is porous, round, and sometimes perforated and is used mainly for agricultural drainage. Roofing tile is made in the form of half-round (Spanish tile) and various flat tiles made to resemble slate or cedar shakes; it is used extensively in the Mediterranean countries.
There are also many products made from cement and aggregates that substitute for, and generally perform the same functions as, the structural clay products listed above. These nonclay brick and tile products are described briefly at the end of the article. The main subject of this article, however, is the brick and tile produced from fireclay.
Fireclay brick and tile are two of the most important products within the field of industrial ceramics. For background information on the nature of ceramic materials, see the articles presented in Industrial Ceramics: Outline of Coverage, particularly the articles on traditional ceramics. For lengthy treatment of the principal application of fireclay brick and tile, see the article building construction.
History of brickmaking
Mud brick, dried in the sun, was one of the first building materials. It is conceivable that on the Nile, Euphrates, or Tigris rivers, following floods, the deposited mud or silt cracked and formed cakes that could be shaped into crude building units to build huts for protection from the weather. In the ancient city of Ur, in Mesopotamia (modern Iraq), the first true arch of sun-baked brick was made about 4000 bc. The arch itself has not survived, but a description of it includes the first known reference to mortars other than mud. A bitumen slime was used to bind the bricks together.
Burned brick, no doubt, had already been produced simply by containing a fire with mud bricks. In Ur the potters discovered the principle of the closed kiln, in which heat could be controlled. The ziggurat at Ur is an example of early monumental brickwork perhaps built of sun-dried brick; the steps were replaced after 2,500 years (about 1500 bc) by burned brick.
As civilization spread eastward and westward from the Middle East, so did the manufacture and use of brick. The Great Wall of China (210 bc) was built of both burned and sun-dried bricks. Early examples of brickwork in Rome were the reconstruction of the Pantheon (ad 123) with an unprecedented brick and concrete dome, 43 metres (142 feet) in diameter and height, and the Baths of Hadrian, where pillars of terra-cotta were used to support floors heated by roaring fires.
Enameling, or glazing, of brick and tile was known to the Babylonians and Assyrians as early as 600 bc, again stemming from the potter’s art. The great mosques of Jerusalem (Dome of the Rock), Isfahan (in Iran), and Tehrān are excellent examples of glazed tile used as mosaics. Some of the blues found in these glazes cannot be reproduced by present manufacturing processes.
Western Europe probably exploited brick as a building and architectural unit more than any other area in the world. It was particularly important in combating the disastrous fires that chronically affected medieval cities. After the Great Fire of 1666, London changed from being a city of wood and became one of brick, solely to gain protection from fire.
Bricks and brick construction were taken to the New World by the earliest European settlers. The Coptic descendants of the ancient Egyptians on the upper Nile River called their technique of making mud brick tōbe. The Arabs transmitted the name to the Spaniards, who, in turn, brought the art of adobe brickmaking to the southern portion of North America. In the north the Dutch West India Company built the first brick building on Manhattan Island in 1633.
Modern brick production
Basically, the process of brickmaking has not changed since the first fired bricks were produced some thousands of years ago. The steps used then are used today, but with refinements. The various phases of manufacture are as follows: securing the clay, beneficiation, mixing and forming, drying, firing, and cooling.
Securing the clay
Clays used today are more varied than those used by the first brickmakers. Digging, mining, and various methods of grinding enable the modern manufacturer to utilize many raw materials.
Clays used in brickmaking represent a wide range of materials that include varying percentages of silica and alumina. They may be grouped in three classes: (1) surface clays found near or on the surface of the Earth, typically in river bottoms; (2) shales, clays subjected to high geologic pressures and varying in hardness from a slate to a form of partially decomposed rock; and (3) fireclays, found deeper under the surface and requiring mining. Fireclays have a more uniform chemical composition than surface clays or shale.
Surface clays are typically recovered by means of power shovels, bulldozers with scraper blades, and dragline operations. Shales are recovered by blasting and power shovels. Fireclays are mined by conventional techniques.
Raw clays are often blended to obtain a more uniform consistency. In many cases the material is ground to reduce large rocks or clumps of clay to usable size and is placed in storage sheds. As additional material is stored, samples are blended from a cross section of the storage pile. The material is then transferred to secondary grinders and screens (if necessary) to secure the optimum particle size for mixing with water. In certain processes (e.g., soft-mud) the clay is transferred directly to the mixing area, eliminating all grinding, screening, and blending.
Mixing and forming
All clays must be mixed with water to form the finished product. The amount of water added will depend on the nature of the clays and their plasticity. This water is removed during drying and firing, which causes shrinkage of the units; to compensate for this shrinkage the molds are made larger than the desired finished products.
Three basic processes are used in the forming and mixing phase. In the stiff-mud process the clay is mixed with water to render it plastic, after which it is forced through a die that extrudes a column of clay like the toothpaste squeezed from a tube (see the Figure). The column gives two dimensions of the unit being manufactured; it is cut to give the third dimension. All structural clay tile is made by this process, as is a great percentage of brick.
In the older method of forming bricks, the soft-mud process, much more water is used, and the mix is placed in wooden molds to form the size unit desired. To keep the clay from sticking, the molds are lubricated with sand or water; after they are filled, excess clay is struck from the top of the mold. It is from this process that the terms wood-mold, sand-struck, or water-struck brick were derived. Clays with very low plasticity are used in the dry-press process. A minimum of water is added, the material is placed in steel molds, and pressures up to 1,500 pounds per square inch (10,000 kilopascals) are applied.
After the bricks are formed, they must be dried to remove as much free water as possible. (They could literally explode if subjected to fire without drying.) Drying, apart from sun drying, is done in drier kilns with controlled temperature, draft, and humidity.
Firing and cooling
Bricks are fired and cooled in a kiln, an oven-type chamber capable of producing temperatures of 870° to 1,100° C (1,600° to more than 2,000° F), depending on the type of raw material. There are two general types of kilns, periodic and continuous.
The earliest type of kiln, the scove, is merely a pile of dried bricks with tunnels at the bottom allowing heat from fires to pass through and upward in the pile of bricks. The walls and top are plastered with a mixture of sand, clay, and water to retain the heat; at the top the bricks are placed close together and vented for circulation to pull the heat up through the brick. The clamp kiln is an improvement over the scove kiln in that the exterior walls are permanent, with openings at the bottom to permit firing of the tunnels.
A further refinement of the scove kiln, round or rectangular in form, is designated as updraft or downdraft, indicating the direction of heat flow. In these kilns the walls and crown are permanent, and there are firing ports around the exterior.
In so-called periodic kilns the bricks are placed with sufficient air space to allow the heat from the fires to reach all surfaces. They are placed directly from the drier, and heat is gradually increased until the optimum firing temperature is reached. When they are sufficiently fired, the heat is reduced, and they are allowed to cool gradually before removal from the kiln.
The periodic kiln was improved in efficiency by placing several kilns in line with connecting passages. The first chamber is fired first and the excess heat passed to the next chamber to start heating. Successively, the various chambers are brought to optimum firing and cooling temperatures, until all bricks have been fired and cooled. This arrangement is known as the moving fire zone. In the more modern fixed fire zone, dried bricks are placed on cars carrying as many as 3,000 or more bricks; the cars start at the cool end of a long tunnel kiln and move slowly forward through gradually increasing temperatures to the firing zone, pass through it, and emerge through decreasing heat zones until cooled.
Since the development of the tunnel kiln, brickmakers have sought to increase automation in their plants. Handling of the finished product has been automated to the point that bricks emerging from the kiln are now automatically stacked in packages of approximately 500, strapped with metal bands, and stored, shipped, and delivered by mechanical equipment.
In some plants bricks are taken from the cutter machine, placed in the drier or on drier cars by mechanical means, placed on kiln cars by mechanical fingers, removed from the kiln cars mechanically, stacked, strapped, and prepared for shipment without being touched by hand.
Uses of brick and tile
By far the largest use of brick and tile products is, as it always has been, in building construction. Another significant application is in drainage systems. Both applications are described in this section.
It may be roughly accurate to say that about 65 percent of all the brick in the world goes into dwellings, and 35 percent goes into commercial, industrial, and institutional buildings. Construction techniques change yearly and from country to country, but basically most brick and tile are used in walls, with lesser use in roofs and floors.
Walls may be classified in three general categories: load-bearing, non-load-bearing, and veneer.
A load-bearing wall supports the loads of a structure, such as floors, equipment, furniture, and people. At one time buildings were constructed with very thick brick walls carrying all floor and other loads. Design of these walls was not based on engineering data but only on well-intentioned but unscientific building codes. As buildings grew taller, the building code requirements for thickness of a brick wall became economically prohibitive. The last truly high-rise, load-bearing brick structure built under older codes was the Monadnock Building in Chicago (1889–91), 16 stories tall with the brick walls 2 metres (6 feet) thick at the base, tapering to 30 centimetres (12 inches) at the top story. The arrival of structural steel on the building scene put a temporary end to the brick bearing-wall skyscraper, but research conducted in the 20th century has led to a resurgence. Thinner walls can be designed for high-rise buildings and built safely at a reasonable cost. Apartment buildings in Switzerland, Germany, Denmark, England, and other countries have risen 15 or more stories supported by brick bearing walls no more than 30 centimetres thick. The use of reinforced brickwork (a combination of brick, reinforcing steel, mortar, and cement grout) permits even thinner walls.
Bearing walls may be classified into five general groups: (1) brick, including brick tied together with cross brick (headers) or with metal ties; (2) composite walls of brick and tile tied together with headers or metal ties; (3) cavity walls, in which the inner and outer wythes (tiers) of units are tied together with metal ties but separated by an air space usually two or more inches in width; (4) reinforced walls, similar to cavity walls except that steel is placed in the cavity and the cavity filled with a soupy mortar (grout); (5) single unit walls, using a unit of necessary thickness to meet design requirements.
Non-load-bearing walls carry only their own weight and may be any one of the types discussed under load-bearing walls. This type of wall is used to close in a steel or concrete frame building. It is usually carried by supports, normally steel shelf angles at each floor, and is called a panel wall. When the wall is supported at the base only, it is called a curtain wall.
Veneer walls are similar to non-load-bearing walls in that they carry no weight except their own. The brick or tile is fastened to a backing, but it does not exert a common action with the backing. Perhaps the most common use is brick veneer on wood frame dwellings. Other examples are architectural terra-cotta and thin ceramic veneer on monumental buildings.
Tile roofs are popular in the Mediterranean area and in the Low Countries of western Europe. In Italy craftsmen have developed an art of using relatively thin tile to form self-supporting arches. Tile roofs in many other areas, particularly on residences, have been used extensively in the past, but economic considerations limit their use now; in addition to the cost of the tile is the cost of roof framing to support the heavier weight of the tile.
Miscellaneous uses in building construction include retaining walls, brick floors, patios, and walks. Most of these uses are decorative as well as utilitarian. The retaining wall of reinforced brick provides an economical means of restraining earth movement and at the same time maintains a continuity of architectural effect, particularly if the adjoining structure is built of brick.
Brick floors, patios, and walks utilize the physical properties of brick, such as resistance to abrasion and to the elements. Paving brick, per se, is practically nonexistent, except for replacement where roads and streets were brick-paved long ago. Industrial floor brick, however, supplies many industries whose manufacturing and handling processes require floors that resist acids and provide a high degree of resistance to abrasion. Brick floors and patios, besides providing a long-lasting, low-maintenance material, offer the designer a medium for developing architectural effects in both colours and patterns.
Structural clay drainage products
Sewer pipe plays an important part in the world’s ecology. An almost impervious material because of its firing, denseness, and glazing, it can carry highly corrosive waste materials that few other products can handle economically.
Drain tile performs a service that ensures a higher yield in farm production of food throughout the world. Many farming areas are plagued with too much water at the wrong times. Drain tile reduces the water level during these times, thereby allowing the root growth of plants to penetrate deeper into the soil, which, in turn, permits them later to resist hot dry weather.
Nonclay brick and tile
Following the introduction of portlandcement in the 19th century, a growing number of products have appeared that resemble clay products in size and intended use. In some countries the production of them, if reduced to brick equivalents, exceeds that of clay products. A brief review of these products, the material used, and the manufacturing processes may serve to suggest the interrelation between these and clay products.
Concrete block is a large unit, usually 8 inches high, 16 inches long, and of various thicknesses, made from a mixture of cement and an aggregate, which may be cinders, limestone, or expanded clay or shale (burned in a rotary kiln). The mixture of cement, aggregate, and a minimum of water is placed in steel molds and vibrated to compact the mixture. The formed units are removed from the molds and cured either in air, steam, or under autoclaving processes (steam under pressure).
Concrete brick is a mixture of cement and aggregate, usually sand, formed in molds and cured. Certain mineral colours are added to produce a concrete brick resembling clay. Concrete pipe is made of cement and aggregate and cured as above. Used as a substitute for clay sewer pipe, it does not have as much resistance to the corrosive action of certain acids. Concrete drain tile and concrete roofing tile are produced similarly.
Sand-lime brick is a product that uses lime instead of cement. It is usually a white brick made of lime and selected sands, cast in molds and cured. Production is limited, with greater use in the United States and Germany.
English language classes usually require a lot of writing. When you're a middle school student, you don't feel the pressure. But high school and college students are assigned complex topics. They are rarely free to choose their own idea, so it makes the situation even more complicated. An argumentative essay should be based on three major set of skills of any good student:
- Research skills
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If one of these is your weak point, you would probably need online academic writing assistance. Anyway, you should try writing a persuasive paper on one of the chosen topics on your own. This is a good practice for your communication and research skills. Argumentative essays are assigned to train your debating abilities. This assignment has a great influence on how a student will perform or give a public speech later.
HOW TO SELECT DEBATABLE ARGUMENTATIVE TOPICS TO DISCUSS
You might think that it's better when your teacher assigns a particular argumentative topic to you. Having a right to develop your own idea is always better. When working on the persuasive essay, a student has to collect all valuable and time-tested sources to prove his knowledge of the certain issue. You may be encouraged to use such primary sources as:
- Academic journals
- Scientific magazines
- Official reports
Even if you are an expert in a certain field, don't hesitate to use and cite external sources. It will point to your ability to collect and select only the most relevant sources. Besides, direct and indirect quotes are needed to support your knowledge of academic writing style. If you are not sure in your writing skills, turn to professional writing agency to buy a winning argumentative essay on a variety of topics for cheap.
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BEST ARGUMENTATIVE PAPER TOPICS
Easy argumentative essay topics
- Education should be free for everyone
- Why are the US citizens rapidly becoming more obese?
- Internet access must be limited to students
- Young people must have a right to choose when it comes to military
- Each student must have a right to pick only those disciplines he is interested in
- What are the advantages US educational system offers to international students?
- Which secondary languages are worth studying today?
- Is education too commercialised nowadays?
- Is current academic grading helpful in performance?
- Are tests like SAT and ACT effective?
- Advantages and disadvantages of MBA program.
Sports argumentative essay topics
- What can be done to assist teenagers in maintaining a healthy weight?
- Physical education in the school system.
- Does participation in NCAA negatively influence the academic performance?
- What is the top unbreakable record in sport?
- Is Michael Jordan still a basketball star?
Argumentative essay topics for middle school
- What is the real relationship between food, fitness, and weight?
- What are the negative effects of diets?
- Society should fight with anorexia
- To regulate health issues, people should think about their sleep more
- Is golf still demanded?
- Steroid takers must be banned from team sports activities.
- Is swimming really the best type of sport?
- Hockey and other dangerous sports.
Argumentative essay topics for college
- Production and sales of tobacco must be made illegal
- Death sentence should be activated in every country of the world
- Smoking in public places has to be banned
- Alcohol usage should be controlled
- They should not sell alcohol beverages after 11 P.M.
- Energetic drinks should be banned and made illegal
- Should court proceedings be documented for television?
- The most suitable age to have a right to vote.
- When can citizens start drinking and smoking (specific age)?
- On the whole, is there justice for all?
- Was the Industrial Revolution a Europe-wide phenomenon in the nineteenth century?
Classical argument topics
- It should be forbidden to use species of animals for research purposes and cruel experiments
- Should rainforests destructions be punished?
- To what extent are electric vehicles a solution to global pollution?
- Pros and cons of globalisation.
- Was Roosevelt right about building a Panama Canal?
- Are you on the side of King-Kong or militaries who interrupted his world to study it using violent measures?
- The risks the United States may face in terms of rapidly changing climate conditions.
- Earthquakes and their consequences.
- Tsunami: the death wave.
- Beautiful forests of Amazonia.
- Which species should be included in the Red Book (Liber Novus)?
- How can students add up to the social movement for nature's safety?
Controversial argumentative essay topics
- Third World War should be Prevented by Russian and US Governments
- Existing public school policies must be changed
- Is gun control an effective way to control the crime?
- Government should forbid same-sex marriages
- Society is turning over-regulated
- The countries with the highest levels of corruption.
- Are some political authorities engaged in illegal activities in the US?
- Should people with physical disabilities be accepted by the government?
- To be a politician: art or a born talent.
- Can anyone be above the law?
- Pros and cons of Monarchy.
- Is CIS a better alternative for the USSR?
Argumentative essay on technology
- Violent video games should be prohibited
- Does technology make people feel alone?
- YouTube Owners Should Check and Fix Comments That Involve Filthy Language
- Are people becoming technological zombies?
- Will humanity reach the time when there will be no more technological advancement?
- Influences of mobile phones: pros and cons
- Technology and education
Argumentative essay on social media
- Is technology limiting creativity?
- The role of communications in social networks for modern education.
- Are contemporary people too much reliant on technology?
- Are online friends more effective than imaginary?
- Is censorship of Internet necessary?
6th-grade argumentative essay topics
- First aid and medical help, in general, should become free
- People are good at heart (download and use an example now)
- People must spend less time on official work without any effect on their salaries
- Social movements must be financed by governments
- Parents have no right to control the lives of their children above 16
- Cloning must be banned
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- Are abortions legal?
- Cross-cultural marriages add up to racial tolerance
- Is it OK to date a younger male?
- What us incest?
- What should be the role of partners in relationship and family?
- Is online dating safe and productive?
- Will people start marrying their computers soon?
Funny argument topics
- Would Batman be in law in a real world?
- 2D vs. 3D vs. 4D: What's Next?
- Can the chip control the human mind like they do in superhero movies?
- Does Griffins Family correspond to the typical American family?
- Graffiti is an illegal art. How should it be punished?
- Marijuana should be legal.
- Should parents be soft on their children?
Art, Music & Movie Ideas for Papers
- Does art pay?
- Can music and cinematography be called an art too?
- Is gothic art the most preferred and magnificent in history of mankind?
- Can you succeed in life working in the field of art?
- Are today's music tracks educational or meaningful at all?
- Is modern lyrics too explicit for a young audience?
- There is no plot in the majority of up-to-date movies.
- How long should a motion picture last?
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VALUABLE TIPS & SIGNS OF THE GREAT TOPIC IDEAS
If you wish everyone to read your piece with the bated breath, try to:
- Pick a topic that everyone is currently discussing. Pay attention to the rumours.
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- Decide on the problem on which everyone has a specific point of view.
- Choose an issue based on your own interests, but don't go too far!
Here we have shared some of the most effective tips:
- No obvious argumentative paper topics!
- Do not stop on those topics that do not arise any arguments. Topics that state scientific facts proved by centuries do not work.
- A debatable essay must focus on the critical issue which leads to the global conflicts.
- Almost every second problem related to politics is a good choice. You may also write something about your school, college or university policies that annoy you or make students argue with their teachers and principals.
- Skip topics that people tend to agree on.
- At the same time, it is better to pass by argumentative essay topics connected with religion, gender, race, and other sensitive episodes of human life. Otherwise, your subjective opinion may be graded subjectively.
- It is better to write your essay following APA style. You may read how to format academic papers in APA here.
Remember: the world is not black-and-white. There are always two sides of the coin. So, even if you're pretty sure in your claim, and the majority of people tend to support it, consider the arguments of the opposing side. Only then your argumentative paper will be graded respectively high.
As you can see, the procedure is everywhere the same. But the idea is to choose the most exciting argumentative paper topics in order to impress both your audience and your teacher. It's like a competition, where the highest grade is your prize. Whenever you need immediate help with your assignment, turn to the professional writing service which can compose an argumentative essay on any topics in several hours.
A FEW WORDS ABOUT STRUCTURE
Just like any other academic paper, argumentative essay requires such steps as:
- In-depth research
- Gathering of information
- Picking the most credible and up-to-date sources
- Writing a draft
- Writing compare and contrast essay itself
- Revising (at least twice)
Speaking about the organisation and structure of the argumentative essay, we offer a five-paragraph paper outline. Let your original ideas flow in this manner:
A conclusion is, no doubt, the most important part of the argumentative essay as you can either support the good impression or destroy it entirely. If you want to avoid typical mistakes, find valuable recommendations in this article.
It all seems easy: just select, draft, write and revise. You may keep your argumentative essays for your future job portfolio in case they are highly graded. We recommend fixing them a bit once your teacher returns the checked version to you. The next time, the process would seem much easier to you.
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